APPLICATIONS AND FIBER TYPES
Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is one of the fastest growing segments in the concrete industry as more and more engineers, architects, owners, specifiers and concrete contractors are turning to the use of fibers to supply their reinforcing needs in their concrete applications. Technical Resources, such as the American Concrete Institute (ACI), have published guidelines and recommendations into the proper specification and use of FRC.
The following Applications and Types of Fibers for use in FRC are consistent with the searchable database found in this web-site. When using the database, it may be necessary to use ‘keywords’, as shown below, to narrow a search for a particular application. As an example, you may find stamped, colored concrete on a highway application. All of the Application types below may be constructed with the use of fiber reinforced concrete.
Potential projects suited to the use of fiber reinforced concrete are listed below. Where possible, the members of the FRCA have submitted project profiles with the use of fibers in the following applications in the “PROJECTS” section of this web-site.
Residential: including driveways, sidewalks, pool construction with shotcrete, basements, colored concrete, foundations, drainage, etc.
Commercial: exterior and interior floors, slabs and parking areas, roadways and
Warehouse / Industrial: light to heavy duty loaded floors and roadways
Highways / Roadways / Bridges: conventional concrete paving, SCC, white-toppings, barrier rails, curb and gutter work, pervious concrete, sound attenuation barriers, etc.
Ports and Airports: runways, taxiways, aprons, seawalls, dock areas, parking and loading ramps.
Waterways: dams, lock structures, channel linings, ditches, storm-water structures, etc.
Mining and Tunneling: Precast segments and schotcrete, which may include tunnel lining, shafts, slope stabilization, sewer work, etc.
Elevated Decks: including commercial and industrial composite metal deck construction and elevated formwork at airports, commercial buildings, shopping centers, etc.
Agriculture: farm and animal storage structures, walls, silos, paving, etc.
Precast Concrete and Products: architectural panels, tilt-up construction, walls, fencing, septic tanks, burial vaults, grease trap structures, bank vaults and sculptures
Other Applications: includes any other FRC related applications not specifically described above.
Fiber types for use in FRC Applications come in many sizes, shapes, colors and flavors. Please contact the various manufacturers, listed in the “CONTACT US” section for additional technical literature and dosage recommendations.
Steel Fibers: These fibers are generally used for providing concrete with enhanced toughness and post-crack load carrying capacity. Typically loose or bundled, these fibers are generally made from carbon or stainless steel and are shaped into varying geometries such as crimped, hooked-end or with other mechanical deformations for anchorage in the concrete. Fiber types are classified within ACI 544 as Types I through V and have maximum lengths ranging from 1.5” to 3” (30 – 80 mm) and can be dosed at 10 to 100 lbs/yd (6 to 67 kg/m3).
Micro-synthetic fibers: These fibers are generally used for the protection and mitigation of plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete. Most fiber types are manufactured from polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, nylon and other synthetic materials such as carbon, aramid and other acrylics. These fiber types are generally dosed at low volumes ranging from 0.03 to 0.2% by volume of concrete – 0.5 to 3.0 lbs/yd (0.3 to 0.9 kg/m3).
Macro-synthetic fibers: This newer class of fibers has emerged over the past 15 years as a suitable alternate to steel fibers when dosed properly. Typical materials include polypropylene and other polymer blends having the same physical characteristics as steel fibers (length, shape, etc.), These fibers can be dosed from 3 to 20 lbs/yd (1.8 to 12 kg/m3).
Glass Fibers: GFRC (Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete) has been predominantly used in architectural applications and modified cement based panel structures.
Cellulose Fibers: manufactured from processed wood pulp products, cellulose fibers are used in a similar manner to micro-synthetic fibers for the control and mitigation of plastic shrinkage cracking.
Natural Fibers: Not typically used in commercial applications of fiber reinforced concrete, natural fibers are used to reinforce cement based products in applications around the world and include materials such as coconut, sisal, jute and sugarcane. These materials come in varying lengths, geometries and material characteristics.
PVA Fibers: Poly-vinyl alcohol fibers are synthetic made fibers that when used at higher volumes, can alter the flexural and compressive performance of concrete
Specialty Fibers: This classification of fibers covers materials not described above and generally pertains to newly manufactured or specified materials not common to the above categories.
Steel & Micro / Macro blends: A recent development in the field of fiber reinforced concrete that has emerged in the marketplace has been the combination or blending of steel and / or macro-synthetic fibers with various types of micro-fibers to help control plastic shrinkage cracking (ie: micro-synthetics) while at the same time providing concrete with enhanced toughness and post-crack load carrying capacity achieved only with the use of steel and macro-synthetic fibers. These fibers are typically dosed at the prevailing
Other Fibers and Blends: Combinations and types of fibers not classified above